Tag Archives: Signs and Ceremonies

Signs and Ceremonies: Sacrifice

The following is from pages 145-152 of Teaching Truths by Signs and Ceremonies or The Church, Its Rites and Services Explained for the People by Rev. Jas. L. Meagher (1882, New York: Russel Brothers). Previous exerpts can be found here:

Signs and Ceremonies
The Real Presence
The Incarnation
The Virgin Mary
The Redemption

"The Mass is the chief act of the Christian religion, the sacrifice offered at the altar, in which the institution of our Lord, and according to the rites of our holy religion the Body and Blood of Christ are offered as an unbloody sacrifice to the Father."

"But what is a sacrifice? Let us understand well what is the Mass. It is a sacrifice, and a sacrifice is an offering made by man to the Supreme Being, telling by that offering that we come entirely from Him our Creator, and therefore that we should be wholly consumed in the honor and the worship of the Almighty. But because it is not allowed man to sacrifice himself and take his life and offer it as a sacrifice, he takes another being, dear to him, and offers it to the Lord in place of himself. That is a sacrifice [Card. De Lugo, De Euchar, Disput. XIX, S. 1]. It is then the offering of a sensible thing, by a chosen minister, so that by destroying it he testifies to God’s supreme authority over us and our dependent on him; it must be the offering of a sensible thing; that is something which appears to our senses, whether living or inanimate, and not internal prayers; it must be offered by one with authority to sacrifice, separated from the people like Aaron and his family; it must be offered only to God, for sacrifice offered to a creature is idolatry; it must be destroyed so as to no more be useful to man; it must be offered with the intention of showing our subjection to God and his supreme power over us as our Creator. Then it is a true sacrifice."

"There must be then five things in a sacrifice in order that it may be acceptable to God. There must be the thing apt to be sacrificed; when living it is called a host, from the pagan custom of sacrificing those of the enemy taken in battle called hosts; there must be the act by which the thing is destroyed, called its immolation, from ancient times when they sprinkled meal or flour on the victim for the sacrifice; there must e the legitimate end of the sacrifice offered to the Supreme Being, for he alone is our Creator; there must be the legitimate man for that purpose, like Aaron chosen by the Lord, like Christ called by his Father, like the priests of the new Law descending by ordination from the Apostles; there must be the work of God in instituting the sacrifice, and ordaining what he will receive, then only will it be accepted by him as a witness of his supreme power over us. Hence in every sacrifice there is an altar, a priest, a victim and an immolation."

"Sacrifice is divided into three classes, according to the three ages of the world; the sacrifices of the Patriarchs from Adam to Moses, when the first born by birthright, was a priest of the Most High, and offered victims and oblations for the family; the sacrifices of the Jewish law from Moses to Christ, ordained by God where the priests descended from Aaron by birth, and the victims, the place and the ceremonies were pointed out by command of God; the sacrifice of the new law from Christ to the end of the world, established by our Lord himself, where the priests descend from Christ through the Apostles by ordination, and the Victim is himself, first offered at the last supper, his Body and Blood shed on Calvary’s cross for our redemption and for that of the whole human race, and the sacrifices of the Patriarchs and of the law of Moses were but figures and shadows ordained by God to prepare the world for the sacrifice of Calvary and of the Mass."

"The sacrifices of the old Law were of three kinds, victims, immolations and libations; the victims or hosts were sacrifices in which animals chosen by God were offered as cows, goats, calves, pigeons, swallows and turtle-doves; they were sacrificed by being killed and sometimes burned. Immolations were sacrifices of things without life, as first fruits of the earth, bread, salt and incense; they were burned, but to pieces, or changed so as to be useless for man. Libations were sacrifices of liquor, as water, oil, etc., and they were poured out, or destroyed before the Lord. These sacrifices were again of three kinds; the holocaust, thus called because the whole was consumed with fire; the sacrifice for sin, thus called because it was offered for sin, being partly burned and the rest eaten by the priests; the peace offerings, thus called for they were given to thank God for passed benefits and to ask peace in the future, a part was burned in the Tabernacle, a part was eaten by the priests and the third portion fell to the use of the giver."

"Such were the sacrifices of the old Law. In the new, there is one sacrifice, foreshown and prefigured by all these sacrifices, rites, ceremonies, libations and offerings of the old Law, and that is the sacrifice of Christ on Calvary and on our Altar. Sacrificed on Calvary, it is called the bloody sacrifice, sacrificed on our altar it is called the unbloody sacrifice; offered on the cross it is the sacrifice of redemption, for there he redeemed us; offered on our altars it is the sacrifice of application, for there the merits of Christ are applied to our souls. But there is but one Victim, one sacrifice. There is one and the same Host now offered by the ministry of the priest, the same as the one then offered on the cross, only there is a different way of sacrifice [Council of Trent, Ses. XXII. c.11]."

"Jesus Christ offered a real sacrifice at the last supper, when he instituted the blessed Eucharist and said [Luke 22:19], ‘Do this in commemoration of me.’ From what we have said; two things are necessary for the Eucharistic sacrifice, the real presence of Christ and the remembrance of his death. The real presence of Christ in the Eucharist was proved in Chapter V. The remembrance of his death is shown in the many rites and ceremonies, and the separation of the Body and Blood; for where the Blood is taken away from the body no one can live, but here there is no real death although the Body is on the altar and Blood is in the chalice, for Christ is now glorified and can die no more, but his death is figured in a mystic manner by the separation of the Body and the Blood."

"Christ instituted the last supper after eating the pascal lamb so that to the eating of the pascal lamb might succeed the eating of his body. And as the pascal lamb was a true sacrifice, so also the last supper, must be a true sacrifice. At that time Christ made a new alliance, a New Testament, like the Old, and like the Old it should be sanctioned by a sacrifice and by blood. For Moses sprinkling the blood of the calves on the people, said [Exodus 24:8]: ‘this is the blood of the covenant which the Lord hath made with you.’ In the same way the Lord alludes to the words and uses nearly the same words in establishing the new Covenant his New Testament saying [Matthew 26:28], ‘this is my blood of the New Testament.’ As Moses spoke of blood offered in sacrifice, therefore Christ also speaks of blood offered in sacrifice, of himself at the last supper."

"When at Antioch, the Apostles and Disciples gathered; ‘And as they were ministering to the Lord and fasting’ [Acts 17:2] the Holy Ghost spoke to them. Ministering in Greek signifies offering sacrifice, according to the most learned writers [Erasmus Edit. Lyons, T. vi, Cor. a Lapid], telling us that sacrifice was offered by the Apostles."

"St. Paul to turn the early Christians from Idolatry says [1 Cor. 10:18,21] ‘are not they that eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar?…But the things which the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils and not to God. And I would not that you should be made partakers with devils. You cannot drink the chalice of the Lord and the chalice of devils. You cannot be partakers of the table of the Lord and the table of devils.’ The Apostle here compares the sacrifices offered to God and those offered to devils, the chalice of the Lord and that of the devils, the altar of God and that of idols. The early Christians then had sacrifices. Again he says [Hebrews 13:10] ‘We have an altar where of they that have no power to eat who serve the Tabernacle.’ The early Christians then had an altar different from that of the temple, but where there is an altar there is sacrifice, for it is an altar because sacrifice is offered on it."

"The Old Testament only confirms what we find in the New. It speaks of the sacrifice of bread and wine offered by Melchisadech kind of Salem, priest of the Most High, and who all the Fathers agree in saying was a figure of the priests of the New Testament, of our holy church, offering the sacrifice of the Son of God in the species of Bread and wine. We know the celebrated prophesy of Malachy against the Jews [Malachi 1:10-11]: ‘I have no pleasure in you saith the Lord of Hosts, and I will not receive a gift of your hands. For from the rising of the sun even to the going down, my name is great among the gentiles, and in every place there is sacrifice, and there is offered to my name a clean oblation, for my name is great among the gentiles saith the Lord of Hosts.’ Such are the words of the inspired writer, telling when the sacrifices of the temple would cease and the knowledge of God would spread among the gentiles, and in every placed the clean oblation of the Mass would be offered to the Lord. ‘In that day there shall be an altar of the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt;’ [Isaiah 19:19] and speaking of the nations he says [Isaiah 66:21] ‘I will take them to be priests and Levites saith the Lord.’ This could not be meant of the altar of the temple, for the Jews had no altar till they came into the desert out of the land of Egypt, long before the days of the prophet; this could not relate to the altar or sacrifices of the Jews, for they were commanded under the severest penalties to sacrifice only in the holy place, in the tabernacle and in the temple appointed by the Lord; this taking of priests could not signify the priests of the Old Law, for they were of the tribe of Levi and the house of Aaron; it tells of the sacrifice of the priesthood, of the offering of the unbloody sacrifice among the gentile nations converted by the preaching of the gospel. No one will say that it is the sacrifice offered to the false gods of the gentiles, for the Lord calls it ‘the clean sacrifice,’ and who would think for a moment that the Lord himself would choose the priests of the idol worshipers. Neither could it be a spiritual sacrifice as prayers and pious aspirations or patient sufferings for these were from the beginning of the world, and God always received them. What then is meant by these prophecies but the sacrifice of the Mass, offered to God on every altar, from the rising to the setting of the sun, from one end to the other of the world? In every city, and hamlet, and village, and valley rise little temples where God loves to dwell, this is the sacrifice, the clean oblation seen by prophetic eye through the mists of ages before the time of Christ."

"Such is the voice of all monuments of antiquity, of all rituals of ancient churches, of all books of prayers, of those nations and those people who separated from the church from today up to the time of the Apostles, with one voice they cry out of the unbloody sacrifice of the Holy Eucharist. The Fathers of the church, these great minds who gathered up the traditions of early days, all speak of the sacrifice of the Mass; they speak of it as a sacrifice, the Host, the oblation, the Victim; they use the words, to offer, to sacrifice; they speak of priests and of altars; they compare it with that of Melchisadech, of the pascal lamb and say it is the sacrifice spoken of by the prophet Malachy; they prove that the Mass is the fulfillment of all these figures, rites and ceremonies, grand and majestic of the Jewish tabernacle and of Solomon’s temple, that all these figures are fulfilled in the Mass."

"St. Justin says [In Dialog. Cum. Tryon. Judeo]: ‘In every place sacrifice is offered; the bread of the Eucharist and the cup of the Eucharist as Malachy foretold.’"

"St. Ireneus, writes [Adv. Haer, 14 c.32]: ‘He who among creatures is bread, took it…saying, ‘This is my Body’ and the chalice in the same way His Blood.’"

"St. Augustine speaking of his dead mother says [Confes. L.ix., c.13]: ‘She desired to be remembered at the altar, no day passing without it, where the holy Victim is dispensed, because the chirograph which was against us was taken away.’"

"But why multiply authorities? All writers of every age speaking upon religious subjects, tell of the sacrifice of the Mass, tell us of the Faith that never changed. For if it had changed, would we not know the time and year? Could such a new doctrine begin without a revolution? Could any power on earth force people to believe such a thing if not taught by Christ and the Apostles, considering how people hold to old traditions and customs?"

"Thus Christ satisfied by the sacrifice of the Cross in paying the price, but that price is applied to our souls by the sacrifice of the Mass. The sacrifice of the Cross was to redeem mankind, the sacrifice of the Mass is to honor God, and to testify his supreme authority over us. The consecration and communion are the essential parts of the sacrifice, that is, without them there could be no sacrifice; the other parts, as prayers, ceremonies, kissings, movements, bows, replies, etc., were added by the Apostles and their successors make it complete, and to add to the beauty and dignity of the service."

"Compared to the sacrifice of the Cross, it does not differ, for one and the same Victim was offered in both. In this divine sacrifice of the Mass, the same Christ is offered in an unbloody manner, who offered himself in a bloody manner on the Cross; ‘One and the same Host now offered by the ministry of the priest, who offered himself on the Cross, only there is a different way of sacrificing.’ For Christ offered himself on the Cross, in the Mass he is offered by the priest; then he was mortal, capable of suffering, a bloody offering, here he is immortal, incapable of suffering, an unbloody offering; the sacrifice of Calvary did not commemorate any other, the Mass is a remembrance of the Cross; on Calvary the sacrifice was to pay the price of salvation, on the altar it is applied to our souls; that was offered once only, the Mass every day, and in every place to the end of the world. Thus they differ with regard to place, circumstance and manner [Schouppe, Theo., Dogmat., De Euchar, 302]."

"Thus the sacrifice of the Cross and of the Mass are the same in some respects and not the same in others. The Cross was the fulfillment of all these bloody sacrifices of the law of Moses; the Mass is the fulfillment of all these ceremonies of the tabernacle and of the temple. The first Mass said was that offered by our Lord himself at the last supper. He sent his disciples to prepare the place of that, the first of the sacrifices of the New Testament; they prepared that upper chamber, large and beautiful as tradition tells us, where having fulfilled the ceremonies of the law of Moses, for he came to fulfill and to complete these signs and ceremonies of the law given by God on Sinai’s top, where, with all the ceremonies of eating the pascal lamb, that figure of himself, he changed the bread and wine into His Body and His Blood. At that moment the Old Testament was of the passed and the New began; the law of the great lawgiver of the Israelites had passed away, and the law of the great lawgiver of the Christians began. The sacrifices of the temple were received no more by God, the sacrifice of the Mass was to take their place. The Old Testament was gone, the New Testament was there. The religion of truth, confined to the Jewish nation was given to the Gentiles, Christ was to die on the morrow and before his death he prepared the Mass as an everlasting remembrance of himself, that all nations and all people might keep him before their eyes till the day of doom, till the Angel’s trumpet calls the dead to judgment."

"We are to see then the Mass; we are to see the meaning of all these signs and ceremonies; we are to see the truths hidden in these things, added by the apostles and their successors to add to the dignity of the sacrifice, to excited devotion in the people, to raise their hearts to heavenly things, and to keep before the eyes of all generations, the life, sufferings and death of the Son of God."

Signs and Ceremonies: The Redemption

The following is from Teaching Truths by Signs and Ceremonies or The Church, Its Rites and Services Explained for the People by Rev. Jas. L. Meagher (1882, New York: Russel Brothers).

“[T]he Redemption was really and truly of infinite value, an infinite price,
not like the Pelagians and Socinians said, for these taught that Christ redeemed
us, not by paying the debt of our sins, but by resisting the temptations of the
evil one in the desert, or by being obedient to his Father; but the Catholic truth
teaches that Christ redeemed us from sin by wiping it completely out, pleasing God
in our place, and restoring us to heaven lost in Adam” (Ch. 7, pp. 117-118)

“He gave an equal return for the honor and respect and reverence due to God,
for sin is infinite because it is an injury done to an infinite God. But the reparation,
the satisfaction returned to God for that sin was infinite, for it was the prayers,
offerings, and the suffering and death of an infinite Person, Jesus Christ, the
Second Person of the Trinity; therefore his satisfaction was equal to the sin and
injury done to God.” (Ch. 7, p. 119)

“But he did not deliver us from the evils of temptation, of death, of sickness,
of suffering, or return to us the perfect and easy control which Adam and Eve had
before their fall, over the lower powers of our soul, or deliver us from all the
evils which fell on the human race from the sin of Adam, but only sanctifying grace,
which gives the right to enter heaven.” (Ch. 7, p. 120)

“And to say that Christ died for us all and that nothing more is required,
is to put the saint and the murderer, the good and the bad all on the same level,
all going to heaven, no matter what they do in this world. Our salvation then depends
on our own actions, the loss or the salvation of each one depends on their sins
or their good works; by these good works gaining the merits and graces of Christ
ready to be showered down upon us when we merit them. By His death he gained all
these, and these are to be given us when we show ourselves worthy by our good lives.”
(Ch. 7, pp. 120-121)

“Such then is the Mass; it is the applying of these merits of Christ to our
souls – the showering down of these graces into our hearts and the continuation
of the sacrifice of Calvary. A sacrifice is the great act of man offered to the
Divinity; here in the Mass we have the Victim only worthy of the Deity, the sacrifice
of the Son of God, there immolated to the God-head, the Offering only worthy of
the Deity of the Second Person of the Trinity is present there, and as the sublime
tragedy of Calvary is continued, there continued in remembrance of Him, the Victim
and the Sacrificer, as all is offered to the God-head, the face of the celebrant
is turned from the people toward God. The people are bowed down in prayer; it is
not necessary that they understand the words, for they are said not for them to
hear but for the ear of God. All may be in silence, still it is a sacrifice offered
to the Lord; not one besides the celebrant may understand these rites and ceremonies,
still they are for the eye of God and not of man
, and God accepts them from
the hands of the priest, for how can he reject the offering of His only begotten
Son?” (Ch. 7, pp. 121-122)

Signs and Ceremonies: The Virgin Mary

The following is from Teaching Truths by Signs and Ceremonies or The Church, Its Rites and Services Explained for the People by Rev. Jas. L. Meagher (1882, New York: Russel Brothers).

"St. Ephanius, born in the year 310, says: ‘What shall I say, or what shall I preach of that beautiful and Holy Virgin? God alone excepted, she excels all others. In her nature more beautiful than the Cherubims and Seraphims and all the angelic host, no earthly tongue can sing her heavenly praises, not even the tongues of angels. O, Holy Virgin, pure dove and celestial spouse. Mary thou art heaven, the temple and the throne of divinity; thou hast Christ transcendent in heaven, as thy son on earth thou a bright cloud in heaven, brought Christ to illuminate the world. Thou gate of heaven, whom the prophet plainly and openly speaks in course of his prayer. ‘My sister, my spouse, is a garden enclosed, a fountain sealed up.’ That Virgin is an immaculate lilly, who brought forth the more perfect rose, Christ. O holy Mother of God. O, Immaculate Dove! In thee the Word became incarnate. O, most holy Virgin, whose sanctity stupefies the angels! Wonderful is the miracle in heaven! a woman clothed with the sun, the moon under her feet; wonderful is the miracle in heaven! the bosom of a virgin holds the Son of God. Wonderful is the miracle in heaven! the God of the angels becomes the Child of the Virgin. The angels condemn Eve; now they cover Mary with glory, for she raised up fallen Eve and she sends Adam, fallen from Paradise, into heaven. The grace of the holy Virgin is immense. Hence Gabriel first salutes the Virgin saying ‘Hail full of grace, Hail most holy Mother Immaculate who brought forth Christ, who was before thee.’" (Ch. 7, p. 112-113)

"Mary was mother of the entire Being born of her; but the Being born of her was the Son of God, and therefore she is the mother of God, and being the mother of God, she is higher, nobler, grander in dignity than any other creature that was mdae, but not by nature, for the angels and all the celestial spirits made by God in heaven are superior to us in the rank of creation and in knowledge; but no angel, no spirit in heaven is the mother of God – only Mary was created for that dignity. She is, therefore, not by nature, but by dignity, far above all the creatures that God made, and that dignity is founded upon her Maternity, because she is mother of God; but she is nothing, compared with God, and no one can adore her, none can worship her, for she is a creature, and to adore a creature is idolatry, and idolatry is the giving to a creature the worship that belongs to God alone. Therefore, idolatry is the greatest sin. Therefore, to adore Mary would be a great sin against God. Adoration, then, belongs only to the Divinity. Therefore we can adore only the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost." (Ch. 7, p. 115)

"All her gifts, all her dignity, all her excellences come from her Son; and if she is full of grace, in the words of the Archangel, that grace comes from Christ, for he is the source from whence come forth all graces and blessings that enlightened angels and men. He is the mediator between God and man. No one can go to heaven but through him; but as when we want to get some favor from a great person, we do not go directly to him but to some one of influence who is well known to him, and whom he respects, whom he cannot refuse, and we ask that one to intercede for us. Thus, sometimes, when we want something from God, and we consider ourselves so little and imperfect, and we know the tenderness and the sympathy of a woman’s heart, and we know the influence of a mother over her son, and we go to Mary and ask her to use her influence with her Son as she has already done, when she told Him they had no wine at Cana, and He changed the water into wine at her request. As Moses prayed for the sins of Israel in the desert, and God at the prayer of the just and holy Moses did not destroy the people, as the prophets prayed for the kings of Israel and God heard their prayers, ao God hears Mary’s requests and grants her what she asks. She is now dead; but those who are dead do not rest so as not to hear us, as many people suppose, for the very nature of a spirit is to be active and in motion. Thus our souls are never at rest, but ever exercise the power they have of movement and of action. Thus souls separate in heaven are always in action and in motion. Thus souls in heaven see God face to face; and as everything that takes place here on earth is seen by God, and as those spirits see him they see in God what takes place here on earth; they see in God then our prayers, our sufferings, our needs, and thus we know that Mary sees us when we pray, and hears us, and ask God to grant the favors that we ask of her.

We are not obliged to go to her; we can go directly to God, and thus many of us do. Thus it is with Mary and the saints. We pray to them only as the servants of God, or we see in their holiness God’s greatness in them; and if they are great, it is the greatness of god within them, for God made them what they are. We see, therefore, within them God himself, for God lived in them and moved in them, for they were the temples of the Holy Ghost." (Ch. 7, p.115-117)

Signs and Ceremonies: The Incarnation

The following is from Teaching Truths by Signs and Ceremonies or The Church, Its Rites and Services Explained for the People by Rev. Jas. L. Meagher (1882, New York: Russel Brothers).

"Let us understand well and clearly the mystery of the Incarnation. If you say that he united himself to man in such as way that his Divinity took the place and fulfilled the duties of the soul in the body, you have only a shell inhabited by the Lord and you have not perfect man, but only a body without a soul. That would be an error of many modern writers.

If you say that the spirit of God dwelt within the body born of Mary, you would have a great prophet of God, and a creature not different from the prophets of old; but he would not be God, he would only come in the spirit of God, and that was the error of the Cerinthians of the first century [and the Arians in the fourth century, if I understand properly – Funky].

If you say that he had no body born of Mary, but that his body was formed of thin atmosphere like a vision, you fall into the erros of the Phantasiasts and Docetists of the early ages.

If you say that he was only a man born of Mary and of Joseph, you fall into the errors of the Ebionites and the Protenites.

If you say that his two natures, the nature of God and the nature of man, were combined in him so as to make two persons, different from one another, you are wrong, you are following the false teachings of the Nestorians.

If you say that his whole human will was absorbed into the Godhead, you fall into the error of the Monothelites.

If you say that he had only one nature, you fall into the errors of the Eutychians.

Now the true doctrine is this: That there was a human nature void without a human person, but, in place of his human person, there was placed the Second Person of the Holy Trinity, and there was God and man united in the Person, and there was in him two natures, the one of God and the other of man, but there was in him only one person, the Person of the Holy Trinity. And, as all the action of a man and all things that he does are referred to him, uniting both the body and soul, so all the works on God and everything that he did were referred to his Person. And the one who is responsible for all these things is is the Second Person of the Holy Trinity; and, therefore, the acts of his soul, and the actions of his body, and the actions of his mind, and his sufferings, and his privations, and all the things that he did, are the actions, and the works, and the operations, not of a human being, but the Second Person of the Trinity. Therefore, these are the actions of God." (Ch. 7, pp. 108-109)

Signs and Ceremonies: The Real Presence

The following is from Teaching Truths by Signs and Ceremonies or The Church, Its Rites and Services Explained for the People by Rev. Jas. L. Meagher (1882, New York: Russel Brothers).

“In the Greek text [the expression of carnal nature of the Eucharist] is stronger
than in our English Bible. Those who do not wish to believe use all kinds of ways
in order to get out of believing the truth of Christ’s presence. But these words
are so clear, the universal belief of all antiquity, the writings of the fathers
of the Church, who give the belief of all ages up to the time of Christ, all these
are so strong on that even Luther himself says, ‘These words are so clear that no
angel from heaven, no man on earth could speak clearer.” (Ch. 5, p. 81)

“St. Ignatius, made Bishop of Antioch in the year 69, writing against the Gnostics
says: ‘They abstain from prayer, because they confess not that the Eucharist
is the flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ
.’ St. Justin, the Martyr, born in the
year 105, explaining the Mass to the Roman Emporer Antoninus, says: ‘He who is the
chief among the brethren, taking the bread and the vessel of wine and water, giving
glory to the Father of all, in the name of the Son and Holy Spirit, continues the
Eucharist…Then all the people say Amen…But we do not take this as communion
bread or drink, but as for our salvation, by the Word of God, Jesus Christ was made
flesh, thus by these prayers we receive the flesh and blood of the same incarnate
Jesus Christ
.'” (Ch. 5, p. 84)

“St. Ambrose, born in the year 340, says: ‘Of the bread the flesh of Christ
is made…But how can that which is bread become the Body of Christ? By consecration.
By whose words and by whose language does the consecration take place? Those of
our Lord Jesus Christ. For it was not the Body of Christ before the consecration,
but I say to thee, that after consecration it is now the Body of Christ. He said
and it was done, he commanded and it was made.'” (Ch.5, p. 85)